RESEARCHING THE EXPERIENCES OF SOME COUNTRIES ON ANTI-CORRUPTION EFFORTS AND LESSONS FOR VIETNAM
Corruption is a long-standing social issue present in all countries, regardless of their political system or level of development. Corruption involves individuals in positions of power and authority exploiting their positions for personal gain. Common types of corruption include political corruption, administrative corruption, and economic corruption. Economic corruption occurs in economic management activities such as production, business, services, public asset procurement, and asset management, carried out by individuals with authority in state economic management or state-owned enterprises. Manifestations of economic corruption include embezzlement of state or citizens' assets for personal gain, making illegal or biased economic decisions for personal gain, and exploiting legal loopholes or violating laws to engage in production, business, or profiteering at the expense of society. Corruption, especially when perpetrated by those in power, has serious consequences, not only in terms of economic damage and a decline in the quality of governance but also in eroding public trust in the leadership of the Party, State, and the country's international reputation. With the Party and State's close attention and guidance, and the collective effort of the political system, the anti-corruption work in Vietnam has made significant progress in recent years. From 2017 to the present, several legal documents related to anti-corruption have been enacted, such as the Anti-Corruption Law effective from July 1, 2019, and the Whistleblower Protection Law effective from January 1, 2019. In addition, various decrees, decisions, and directives have played a significant role in anti-corruption efforts in Vietnam. Despite positive legal developments, investigations since 2017 have exposed a significant number of large-scale corruption cases, particularly in areas such as banking, management, the use of public investment funds, and state-owned land. In reality, corruption has become increasingly sophisticated and complex, with perpetrators exploiting legal gaps. In recent years, many economic-related scandals have emerged, highlighting the interconnectedness between financial aspects and corruption. Therefore, evaluating anti-corruption efforts from a financial perspective and finding comprehensive solutions are essential. Studying the essence of corruption, its forms, causes, and drawing lessons from other countries' experiences in combating corruption is of utmost importance in formulating effective anti-corruption measures in Vietnam for the future.
Corruption, Vietnam, Worldwide.