OBESITY AND INFLAMMATION ASSOCIATED INSULIN RESISTANCE: A REVIEW
The accumulation of surplus body fat that negatively affects someone's well-being is referred to as obesity. There is an unprecedented obesity epidemic that is spreading faster and farther, while there are no early indications that it will ever slow down. Numerous lines of clinical and preclinical studies have established a mechanistic relationship between chronic low-grade adipose tissue inflammation and issues with organ tissue in the treatment of overweight and obese people. This is primarily due to the strong interactions or cross-talk between several pro- and anti-inflammatory in nature signalling pathways involved in the immune system's response of expanding adipose depots, notably the visceral adipose tissue. Adipokines, in addition to cytokines and chemokines generated from immune cells and dysfunctional adipocytes, respectively, have a role in both the initiation and maintenance of inflammation in adipose tissue. TNF-alpha, one of them, has been suggested as a connection between fat and insulin resistance. Insulin resistance is a primary contributing factor to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), which happens when the body's cells cease reacting to insulin. According to estimates, IR usually appears 10–15 years before diabetes manifests itself. Usually, insulin resistance lasts for several years before type 2 diabetes emerges. We discuss the physiological mechanisms of obesity, the causes of inflammation, and resistance to insulin in this article. In order to avoid insulin resistance and Diabetes Mellitus Type 2, we also cover current treatments for obesity in this context.