INFLUENCE OF OBESITY ON THYROID: A REVIEW
Obesity has increased prevalence globally, and knowledge of its pathophysiology and metabolic effects has significantly improved. The white adipose tissue actively produces many hormones, cytokines, and chemokines that together play significant roles in homeostasis and the control of thyroid hormones. Previously, white adipose tissue was considered to be the body's greatest inactive energy reserve. Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. By controlling cellular respiration and thermogenesis as well as modulating resting metabolic rate, thyroid hormones have an impact on energy expenditure. Triiodothyronine stimulates the central nervous system, particularly hypothalamus which regulates appetite and modulates lipid turnover in adipocytes. Additionally, thyroid-stimulating hormones can regulate lipolysis and lipogenesis control, thermogenesis, hunger suppression, and lipid storage regulation. It was established that hypothyroidism leads to obesity, but obesity may also be a risk factor for developing hypothyroidism. The link between thyroid function and obesity has received more attention in recent years due to the considerable interactions that exist between these two conditions. In particular, it's important to pay attention to how adipocytokines and thyroid hormones (THs) interact in obese people. By examining the underlying source of this association, it is needed to check this bidirectional relationship between hypothyroidism and obesity by deep research into the fundamental causes and also to understand how it can be implemented in our clinical practice.