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Original Research



Vol 17, No 11 ( 2022 )   |  DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.7336458   |   Author Affiliation: Institut Agama Islam Negeri Palopo – Indonesia 1; Institut Agama Islam Negeri Palopo – Indonesia, Queen’s University Belfast – United Kingdom 2.   |   Licensing: CC 4.0   |   Pg no: 834-848   |   To cite: ABDUL PIROL, and SUKIRMAN. (2022). RELIGIOUS ISSUES IN HATE SPEECHES ON INDONESIAN FACEBOOK. 17(11), 834–848. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7336458   |   Published on: 18-11-2022


This study aimed to analyze words that were often used by hate spellers in Facebook, the offender of hate speech based on their sex, and the motives of hate spellers involving religious issues in their hatred uploads on their Facebook page. Then, the study applied mixed methods as part of a broader content analysis using qualitative data collection techniques embedded in grounded theory. Then, the research subjects were Facebook users’ posts and comments that contains religious issues in hate speech. In addition, the collected data were qualitative and quantitative data. The qualitative data were religious issues in hate speeches posted and commented on the Facebook page; meanwhile, the quantitative data were in forms of words containing hate speech that frequently appeared in Facebook such as the word terrorist appeared more than 100 times. Then, to analyse, the researchers applied electronic Nvivo since the use of NVivo software system made the researchers able to compile 'high frequencies' of words and patterns that were directly related to religious issues in hate speech. Moreover, this study indicated that many Facebook users in Indonesia were abusing it as a medium to express hate speech against Islam. The motives for hate speech in western countries differed slightly from those on Indonesian Facebook in which hate speech in the western countries was influenced by a very deep trauma to some terrorist acts aimed at Islam (the forerunner of the birth of the islamophobia group). Meanwhile, in Indonesia, apart from trauma, political elements and setting against are very dominant things, especially when approaching the campaign period for the election of leaders both president and governor. Finally, this research has highlighted that the existence of hate speech on Indonesian Facebook can damage the society's order and the harmony between religious communities that have been fought for so far.


Facebook, Hate Speech, Islamophobia, Religious Issues