DECENTRALIZATION AND COMMUNITY EMPOWERMENT POLICIES TO IMPROVE THE WELFARE OF COASTAL COMMUNITIES: A CASE STUDY IN BANGKALAN, INDONESIA
This research discusses decentralization policies in Indonesia, especially related to the management of capture fisheries resources and coastal resources in relation to community empowerment. This study aims to analyze decentralization policies in relation to coastal community empowerment in Bangkalan Regency, with case studies in Labuhan Village (pseudonym), Tenjang Village (pseudonym), Bangkalan District, and Gunung Village (pseudonym) Kwanyar District, Bangkalan Regency. This research uses a qualitative approach consisting of two stages. The initial stage is research related to public policy in terms of decentralization policies in general and decentralization of fisheries and marine resource management in particular. Similarly, research related to coastal community empowerment, especially in Bangkalan Regency. This research is in the form of literature studies as well as discussions and consultations with experts, and observation of supporting data. The next stage of this research is field research which includes direct observation of field conditions, and interviews with actors and figures. Based on the analysis and research findings, it can be seen that decentralization has an impact on the empowerment of Bangkalan coastal communities first because of the administrative impact of Law 23 of 2014, where district authority over marine areas is eliminated, making regulations regarding fishing irrelevant. Which threatens the survival of livelihoods) Bangkalan fishermen by fishermen from outside are increasingly difficult in terms of conflict resolution. Conflict resolution can be mitigated through the initiative of the provincial government with the establishment of Pokmaswas but is still constrained because the provincial government does not have a bureaucratic apparatus in Bangkalan Regency. Second, the impact of political and fiscal decentralization which then affects the socio-economic aspects of the community with the activities and programs of the regent in the context of politically charged community empowerment in the use of local government budgets. The results of this study recommend that the authority of the district/city especially in Bangkalan Regency over the sea area needs to be restored for effective governance of fishing community empowerment. If the authority of the district/city over the sea area cannot be restored to its original state, then law enforcement against violations of fishing areas needs to be strengthened. The next recommendation is that government intervention in community empowerment still needs to be improved because, in the three villages where this study is conducted, there is only one village that has received support from the Bangkalan district government. Then considering that this research is a case study, further research is needed in other fields related to decentralization and empowerment of coastal communities.
Decentralization, Community Empowerment, Coastal, Social, Economic.