CRITICAL VIEWS ON THE SPIRITUAL AND RELIGIOUS FOUNDATIONS OF INDIAN PHILOSOPHICAL SYSTEMS
The dynamic nature of the world has changed the physical aspects of human life according to science and development, but the spiritual aspects of life are still under debate from ancient times to the present without any solid conclusions. The interpretation of the oldest religious document, the Vedas, informs us that the main goal of mankind is to obtain the four purusharthas, namely artha, Kama, dharma, and moksha. But the interpretation of the Vedas by different Indian schools of thought leads to incoherent views on spiritual aspects of human life. This research paper analyses the Indian orthodox systems of philosophy such as Mimamsa, Sankhya, Yoga, Nyaya, Vaisesika, and Vedanta, as well as the heterodox systems of philosophy such as Charvaka, Jainism, and Buddhism, regarding the salient features of jiva, Brahman, moksha, and the ways to get moksha in depth. This research paper analyses and finds out the nature of the future universal religion and its universal religious philosophy, reflecting all the important features of Indian orthodox and heterodox philosophical systems, to satisfy all the needs of different sections of people around the globe, irrespective of gender, caste, language, and region, to lead a happy and prosperous life on earth.
Indian Philosophy, Religion, Brahman, Jiva, Liberation.