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Original Research



Vol 18, No 04 ( 2023 )   |  DOI: 10.17605/OSF.IO/Z2G9F   |   Author Affiliation: Faculty member, Torrens University Australia.   |   Licensing: CC 4.0   |   Pg no: 422-432   |   Published on: 13-04-2023


NGOs (Non-Governmental Organisations) take leadership challenges and responsibilities for working in very uncertain and volatile political and economic circumstances to aid society's most vulnerable and marginalized communities. Prior research showed NGO leaders' complex leadership challenges in their work environments. Unfortunately, much of our understanding of leadership approaches and style and their motivational factors are based on studies from the business, political, and military sectors. These studies are primarily from the experience and research from the industrialised and developed countries of the Global North, explicitly focusing on the short-term oriented, low-power distance, the individualistic culture of Europe and North America. There is very limited research on the leadership approaches of NGOs and public sectors from other parts of the globe. This current study analyses a case based on the experience of a south Asian country (Bangladesh) for exploring different leadership practices and challenges of the top, middle, and frontline NGO leaders. The study analyzed multiple contemporary leadership models and theories (e.g., Transformational, Command/ control, Top-down, Relational, Charismatic, Cross-cultural, Situational, and Empathetic leadership) to examine and understand different leadership styles and approaches of NGO leaders. The findings show discord in leadership practices between top, middle, and frontline (field workers) NGO leaders and the challenges of NGO leaders are very much context specific and distinct from those faced by for-profit and other Govt. organisations. This research will help us understand NGO leaders' complex dynamics and multilevel leadership challenges and reveal the gaps between their context specific leadership approaches and styles.


Bangladesh, Leadership, Non-Government Organisation, Rohingya refugees, Context and Culture